طراحی و اعتباریابی الگوی تفکر انتقادی و اثربخشی آن بر یادگیری مشارکتی در دانشجویان دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران شمال

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار،گروه علوم تربیتی دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاداسلامی واحد تهران شمال،تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار پژوهشگاه مطالعات، سازمان پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی آموزشی، وزارت آموزش و پرورش

3 دانشیار گروه فلسفه تعلیم و تربیت، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف طراحی و اعتباریابی الگوی تفکر انتقادی و اثربخشی آن بر یادگیری مشارکتی در دانشجویان دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران شمال در سال  1396 انجام شد. روش پژوهش بر حسب هدف کاربردی و از نظر روش گردآوری داده­ها نیمه آزمایشی از نوع طرح پیش آزمون-پس آزمون همراه با گروه کنترل و پیگیری، همین­طور از نظر نوع داده آمیخته اکتشافی بود. جامعۀ آماری در بخش کیفی شامل 12 نفر از صاحب‌نظران و خبرگان دانشگاهی (متخصصان علوم تربیتی و فلسفه) بودند که با روش نمونه­گیری هدفمند انتخاب شدند. هم­چنین جامعه آماری در بخش کمّی شامل 60 نفر از دانشجویان دختر و پسر دوره کارشناسی حسابداری بودند که با استفاده از روش نمونه­گیری در دسترس، در دو گروه 30 نفر آزمایش و کنترل همتاسازی شدند. گروه آزمایش 8 جلسه 90 دقیقه‌ای تحت آموزش تفکر انتقادی قرار گرفتند و گروه کنترل در لیست انتظار ماندند. ابزار گردآوری داده­ها در بخش کیفی مصاحبه­های نیمه ساختاریافته انفرادی اکتشافی بود که برای حصول اطمینان از روایی بخش کیفی و به­منظور اطمینان خاطر از دقیق بودن یافته­ها از دیدگاه پژوهشگر، از نظرات اساتید و خبرگان این حوزه و متخصصان علوم تربیتی و فلسفه استفاده شد. در بخش کمّی نیز به­منظور گردآوری داده­ها از پرسشنامه یادگیری مشارکتی چو و باولی (1999) استفاده شد4. داده­های گردآوری‌شده حاصل از بخش کمّی از طریق آمار توصیفی و استنباطی (تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی، آزمون تحلیل کوواریانس و t وابسته) و با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SPSS-V22 و Lisrel-V8.8 تحلیل شد. یافته­ها نشان داد: از جمله مؤلفه‌های تفکر انتقادی شامل مهارت تحلیل، مهارت خودگردانی، مهارت ارزشیابی، مهارت استنباط و درک، مهارت توضیح و مهارت تفسیر بود. بر اساس ابعاد و مؤلفه‌های شناسایی‌شده، مدل پژوهش از برازش مناسبی برخوردار بود. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که اثربخشی الگوی تفکر انتقادی طراحی‌شده بر یادگیری مشارکتی در بین دانشجویان مؤثر بوده و پایداری آن در طول زمان نیز ماندگار بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing and validation of critical thinking model and its effectiveness on cooperative learning in Students of Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch

نویسندگان [English]

  • F Ahmadbeigi 1
  • GH Ahghar 2
  • Mohsen Iimani naeini 3
1 Field of Philasophy of Education،Department of Philosophy of Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 associate profssor of pedagogy
3 Associate Professor in Department of Philosophy of Education, Tarbiat Modares, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The present research was conducted with the aim of Designing and validation of critical thinking model and its effectiveness on cooperative learning in Students of Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch in 1396. The research was practical in terms of objectives and Semi-experimental, pre-test and post-test design with control and follow-up group in terms of data collection method. Moreover, it was exploratory mixed in terms of type of data. In the qualitative section, the population consisted of 12 of experts of the scientific community and organizational specialists (Specialists in Education and Philosophy) who were selected using purposive sampling method. Furthermore, in the quantitative section, the population consisted of 60 male and female undergraduate students were selected using sampling method and matched in two groups of 30 experimental and control groups. The experimental group received eight 90-minute sessions of critical thinking training, and the control group remained on the list. Data collection tool was individual exploratory Semi-structured interview in the section of qualitative research which valuable opinions of professors and specialists familiar with the area of Specialists in Education and Philosophy who were informed in this area were employed in order to investigate the validity of the results. In the section of quantitative research, Cooperative learning Cho and Bowley (1999) were used to collect data. Content validity was used in order to analyze qualitative data of the research. Moreover, the collected data were analyzed through descriptive (Frequency, percentage frequency, mean, standard deviation, and range of changes) and inferential (Exploratory factor analysis, Mancova and dependent t) statistics using SPSS-V22 and Lisrel-V8.8 software. The findings demonstrated: One of the components of critical thinking included analysis skills, self-management skills, assessment skills, inferential and understanding skills, explanatory skill and interpretation skills. Based on the dimensions and components identified, the research model was fit to fit. The results showed that the effectiveness of the critical thinking model designed for cooperative learning among students was effective and its sustainability over time was also persistent.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • critical thinking؛ cooperative learning؛ interpretation skill
  • self discipline skill
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